What Radiologists Need to Know About the COVID-19 Pandemic!
Until recently, most people will never have heard of coronaviruses. But they, and the diseases they cause in humans and animals, have been recognized for over 50 years.
Who first discovered coronaviruses?
Avian infectious bronchitis was first described in newborn chicks in 1931 by Schalk & Hawn (J Am Vet Med Ass 1931; 78: 413–23) and by Bushnell & Brandly in 1933 (Poultry Science 1933; 12: 55-60). These papers were both cited by Beach & Schalm, 1936, who confirmed that the infection was due to a filterable virus and identified two strains, with cross-immunity. The virus was cultivated in 1937 by Fred Beaudette and Charles Hudson, from the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (J Am Vet Med Ass 1937; 90: 51–8 cited by Marks) and later by Cunningham & Stuart in 1947. An essay writer is a person whose job is to create articles and this important topic will also be highlighted in an essay format.
In 1951 Gledhill & Andrewes isolated a hepatitis virus from mice, now also known to be a coronavirus.
In 1965, the virologist David Tyrrell, Director of the Medical Research Council’s Common Cold Research Unit at Harnham Down near Salisbury in Wiltshire, and his colleague Mark Bynoe published a paper in the British Medical Journal, in which they described a virus, which they called B814, and identified it as a cause of the common cold. They tried to characterize other viruses, but without much success, and thought that viruses of which they found evidence were rhinoviruses.
Typical Imaging features of for pulmonary involvement of COVID-19
- Ground-glass opacities, with or without consolidations, in lung regions close to visceral pleural surfaces, including the fissures (subpleural sparing is allowed) AND
- Multifocal bilateral distribution
- Ground-glass regions
- Unsharp demarcation, (half) rounded shape.
- Sharp demarcation, outlining the shape of multiple adjacent secondary.
- Pulmonary lobules.
- Crazy paving.
- Patterns compatible with organizing pneumonia.
- Thickened vessels within parenchymal abnormalities found in all confirmatory patterns.
The important imaging features of coronavirus and the role of radiology. Inlcudes:
1. A review of CXR and CT Findings of COVID-19.
2. The systems for structured reporting of those findings.
3. A description of how the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center has implemented structured reporting into their system.
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CO-RADS – COvid19 Reporting and Data System
The CO-RADS classification is a standardized reporting system for patients with suspected COVID-19 infection developed for a moderate to high prevalence setting. This was developed by the Dutch Radiological Society (NVvR) and published in Radiology.
Precautions for Radiology Department Personnel
Ensuring the safety of healthcare workers and other patients is essential.
The Journal of American College of Radiology and Radiology (RSNA)journals have outlined a few recommendations for the safety of radiology personnel while managing patients with coronavirus pneumonia. The writer assigned to write my essay request related to radiology topic is qualified to the same academic level or higher than your writing requirements.
Here are a few of the recommendations:
- Portable radiographic equipment should be used to limit the transportation of patients.
- If a patient needs to be transported to the radiology department, he or she should wear a surgical mask during transport to and from the department.
- Radiology equipment should be disinfected after every contact with suspected patients.
- Implementation of standard operating procedures for radiological imaging and procedures for patients with known or suspected COVlD-19 exposure.
- Improving capability for remote interpretations (home, other sites) in the case of staff isolation or patient surge.
How to clean ultrasound machines during the coronavirus pandemic?
Here are recommendations from the "SFM India Oriented Guidelines for Ultrasound Establishments During the COVID19 Pandemic"
SARSCoV2, the causative agent of COVID-19 can be present on surfaces for several days. Surfaces that come into contact with the patient (cable and transducer), as well as surfaces that are touched by the clinician (keyboard, touchscreen, trackball, handlebars, etc.), should be disinfected after each examination. High-level disinfection (HLD) is not required when using ultrasound probes on intact skin. There is no evidence that HLD offers benefits for disinfection from SARS-CoV2.
The following steps should be followed:
1. Excess ultrasound gel on the transducer should be wiped off with a soft cloth after each examination. The gel can harbor a lot of germs and its presence prevents adequate disinfection.
2. Transducer surfaces and cords should be wiped with an equipment vendor-approved low-level disinfectant (LLD). Commonly approved agents include 70% Alcohol, Ammonia, 10% Bleach, Clorox, standard dilute Cidex, Protex wipes, SaniCloth, PI Spray, Oxivir wipes, Mikrobac, Microzide, Lonza, Klercide 70 and Descocept wipes.
3. Equipment desktop, edges, keyboard, transducer resting stands and especially the side in close proximity to the patient should be wiped with an LLD.
4. Commercial wipes should not be reused. These should be disposed of in appropriate bins. Cloths may be laundered with standard machine-washing. Hire a reliable online essay writer who will create an original radiology content and deliver it on time.
5. Transducer and cord covers are too overpriced for general use. Makeshift covers like laparoscopy camera covers are difficult to source. These are not encouraged and LLD is adequate.
6. Ultrasound machines in COVID designated centers must be used with machine covers and covers for the transducer and cable. High-level disinfectants (HLD) is recommended in areas if ultrasound has been done where AGPs were performed.